The full form of HRP in medical term is “Horse Radish Peroxidase.”
Horseradish plant roots contain the enzyme horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Because it can catalyse a wide range of reactions, it is frequently utilized in molecular biology, biochemistry, and analytical chemistry.
Identifying certain components, like proteins or nucleic acids, within biological samples is among HRP’s most often-used applications. A technique known as immunoassay is used to do this, in which an antibody particular to a target molecule is coupled to HRP. The antibody attaches to the target whenever the sample comprising of the target molecule is tested, bringing the HRP close by. The oxidation of a colourless substrate is then catalysed by the HRP, yielding a colourful product that may be seen using spectrophotometry.
Horseradish peroxidase is an adaptable enzyme with many uses in molecular biology, analytical chemistry, and biochemistry. It is a crucial tool in the lab due to its versatility in catalysing reactions and its specificity for target molecules. A wide range of additional applications, such as Western blotting, DNA detection, ELISA, Biosensors, and many others, also use HRP.
There are several restrictions with HRP. For instance, exposure to heat, detergents, and pH extremes can quickly render it inactive. Azides and substances containing sulfhydryl can also hinder the activity of certain substances.